The production of alkaloids in turfgrass with AVANEX® is concentrated close to the grass crown area at and above the soil surface. A small amount of alkaloid moves up into the leaves and into the roots. The insects most affected by the alkaloids are those that feed on or about the grass crown. This includes many caterpillars, beetles and weevils. In tall fescue below ground feeding white grubs and chafer grubs can be moderately deterred by downward moving lolines. Molluscs and earthworms are generally not significantly affected.